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Category Archives: Vitamin K2 Research

Vitamin K2 for Fertility and Pregnancy

One of the most significant things you can do when attempting to conceive or while pregnant is to make sure to be fueling yourself, and your unborn child, with a nutritious diet. Pregnancy is taxing on the body and it is often hard or near impossible to obtain all the recommended nutrients without vitamin supplementation. Making smart choices concerning what you eat and the supplements you take will promote healthy development and growth of your baby says Certified Nutrition Specialist and Innerzyme founder, Katie Jodscheidt. One vitamin that is gaining more and more interest is vitamin K2, which is found in fermented foods such as natto and certain cheeses, eggs, meat, butter and other dairy foods1 from grass-fed sources. However, just because a food is fermented does not necessarily mean it is rich in vitamin K2, in fact, many are not.

Many Eastern cultures consume fermented soybeans or natto on a daily basis, however, the slimy and smelly taste and texture of it is often too unpleasant for the Western palate. As far as other foods containing vitamin K2, getting an adequate amount is not as easy as one may think since many foods are lacking this essential nutrient because they are processed, genetically modified and no longer sourced from grass-fed animals. An easier and more convenient way of getting an adequate amount of vitamin K2 is through daily supplementation. However, not all vitamin K2 supplements are created equal. When choosing a vitamin K2 supplement, quality, dosage and type of vitamin K2 is important. The optimal quality of vitamin K2 is in the natural form of MK-7 because it has a longer half-life, meaning it stays in your system longer and the body better absorbs it. In healthy individuals, research has not reported any side effects, adverse reactions or known toxicity as a result of large doses of vitamin K2. In fact, many Eastern cultures consume 300-600mcg of natto daily. Inside the human body vitamin K2 is involved in many processes that are critical for a healthy pregnancy and baby, such as blood coagulation, bone metabolism and other calcium dependent events.

Research into the health benefits of vitamin K2 is still in its infancy with more and more work being done. Two recent peer reviewed studies provide encouraging results concerning the role of vitamin K2 in embryonic development. In August 2014, a cohort of Japanese researchers discovered that an enzyme called UBIAD1, which is involved in vitamin K2 synthesis, is required for development of mouse embryos2. When the scientists deleted both copies of the gene coding for UBIAD1 mice embryos died in less than 8 days after ceasing to grow, and as expected, produced no vitamin K2. Strikingly, when the mothers of these mutant mice were administered vitamin K2, the embryos lifespan was extended to term. Not long after this report was published, Canadian researchers found that vitamin K2 supplementation significantly improved embryo production in cows3. This finding is most likely due to the role of vitamin K2 in mitochondria function, which converts sugars into energy for the cells to use. Together, these reports add to the increasing knowledge researchers at Innerzyme are gaining concerning the health benefits of vitamin K2 and warrant further research.

References:

  1. Elder S. et al. Vitamin K contents of meat, dairy, and fast food in the U.S. diet.  Agric. Food Chem.2006, 54(463−467) (source)
  2. Nakagawa K. et al. Vitamin K2 biosynthetic enzyme, UBIAD1 is essential for embryonic development of mice.PLoS One 2014, 9(8): e104078 (source)
  3. Baldoceda-Baldeon et al. Improvement of bovine in vitro embryo production by vitamin K₂Reproduction 2014, 148(5) 489-97 (source)

 

Recommended dosage: Take 1 vegetarian capsule (300mcg) per day, or as directed by your healthcare practitioner.

*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.  This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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Study Finds Natural Vitamin K2 Helps Prevent Bone Loss

Double Blind Study Finds That Natural Vitamin K2 Helps Prevent Bone Loss*

Vitamin K2 is essential for calcium-dependent processes in tissues throughout the body, including bone. Since the discovery of vitamin K in 19351 researchers have elucidated many important roles and sources of vitamin K2. Even though many research milestones have been realized with vitamin K2, the researchers at Innerzyme continue to study this incredible nutrient to gain additional knowledge; including how it enters the body and moves throughout cells and tissues, how it is stored and how it is metabolized2. A major nuance of studying the role of vitamin K2 in the human body is that it is present in relatively low levels, making it hard to detect and measure. All this being said, a number of recent reports from diverse research groups have found promising results related to vitamin K2 and bone health, particularly in postmenopausal women.

A recent peer reviewed study from the Netherlands sought out to determine the effects of a natural form of vitamin K2, menaquinone-7 (MK-7), in postmenopausal women3. This work was driven by the European Food Safety Authority’s acceptance of claims that vitamin K had a role in bone health. To test this, the researchers carefully designed their double blind and randomized experiment, in which they measured bone mineral density before the treatment, as well as 1, 2 or 3 years after taking the vitamin K2 supplement daily. Bone mineral density scans are used to estimate the strength of an individual’s skeletal system, a fairly common test for postmenopausal women. Moreover, they looked for fractures and determined vitamin K status throughout the study. In all, the study finished with 223 women, with roughly half the participants receiving MK-7 (180 μg) and the other half receiving a placebo, serving as a control or baseline for the experiment.

Within the first year of the supplementation study, maximal levels of circulating vitamin K were achieved, being maintained throughout the 3-year duration. When examining the effects of vitamin K supplementation on bone loss, a pattern of improvement was achieved between year 1 and year 2, but it wasn’t until year 3 that there was a significant benefit for all three bone areas analyzed. In terms of bone strength, the femoral neck was significantly stronger with supplementation. These results support the original claims that drove this work, providing strong evidence of the long-term benefits of vitamin K on bone health. Prior to this study, only two other one-year studies were done on vitamin K2 MK-7.4,5. These encouraging results with the natural form of vitamin K2, MK-7, are most likely due to its chemical properties, including its increased stability and higher potency, compared to other forms.

Altogether, this research provides well-documented results that contribute significantly to the growing knowledge base concerning the health benefits of vitamin K2 supplementation, including increased bone health. For healthy bone and soft tissue support, the recommended dosage of vitamin K2, MK-7 is 300mcg per day, or as directed by a licensed healthcare practitioner.  In healthy individuals, research has not reported any side effects, adverse reactions or known toxicity as a result of large doses of vitamin K2, MK-7.

References:

  1. Dam and Schønheyder, “The occurrence and chemical nature of vitamin KBiochem J 30(5):897-901 (1936).
  2. Card et al., “Vitamin K metabolism: Current knowledge and future researchMol Nutr Food Res 58(8):1590-600 (2014).
  3. Knapen et al., “Three-year low-dose menaquinone-7 supplementation helps decrease bone loss in healthy postmenopausal womenOsteoporos Int 24(9):2499-507 (2013).
  4. Emaus et al., “Vitamin K2 supplementation does not influence bone loss in early menopausal women: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trialOsteoporos Int 21:1731-40 (2009).
  5. Kanellakis et al., “Changes in parameters of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women following a 12-month intervention period using dairy products enriched with calcium, vitamin D, and phylloquinone (vitamin K(1)) or menaquinone-7 (vitamin K (2)): the Postmenopausal Health Study IICalcif Tissue Int 90:251-62 (2012).

 

What doctors are saying about Innerzyme Vitamin K2, MK-7?

Eli J. Hammer, M.D.

The Hammer Institute for Anti-Aging Medicine

Board Certified in Family Practice by the American Board of Family Practice

Board Certified in Anti-Aging Medicine by the Board of Anti-Aging Medicine

“As an Anti-Aging Medicine physician, I am continuously searching for anything that can be used to improve my patients’ present health, prevent future disease, and improve their quality of life. In addition to a healthy diet, optimal exercise, and bio-identical hormones, I also recommend and prescribe nutritional supplements to my patients. The most exciting, and possibly the most important discovery in supplements since Vitamin D3, may indeed be Vitamin K2. In fact, they actually work together to keep your bones strong and arteries clear of plaque. Up until recently, finding the proper form of Vitamin K2 was difficult to say the least. Ideally, a typical patient needs about 300mcg of Vitamin K2 per day, and should be in the most optimal form of K2 called MK-7. Most supplements use the synthetic and cheaper form of Vitamin K2 called MK-4, and come in less optimal dosing of 50-100mcg per capsule. I discovered Innerzyme Vitamin K2 MK-7 about two years ago and have been using this product exclusively ever since. Not only is it the only brand of Vitamin K2 that comes in a one capsule optimal dose of 300mcg, it is also of the MK-7 variety and produced naturally from fermented soy (natto), the optimal source. Along with the convenience of taking a single capsule daily, its pricing is also very competitive. My patients, family, and myself have been quite pleased with Innerzyme’s newest product, Vitamin K2, along with the company’s entire line of supplements.”

*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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Studies Indicate Vitamin K2 May Have a Positive Effect on Cardiovascular Health and Osteoporosis

Vitamin K has long been recognized for its role in protein biosynthesis for the blood coagulation process. However, research now indicates that Vitamin K plays a vital part in a variety of complex physiological functions within the body. More specifically, Vitamin K2, the menaquinones, has been shown to support bone and soft tissue health while promoting healthy brain function and cardiovascular support.

The Vitamin K group of vitamins includes K1 and K2. Vitamin K1 or phylloquinone, is produced by plants and is commonly found in green vegetables and herbs. Although Vitamin K1 is readily available in plant-based foods and offers adequate blood clotting support, there are a variety health related issues that Vitamin K1 does not sufficiently support but are a growing problem. This is where supplementation of Vitamin K2 MK-7 becomes important in getting the optimum quality and quantity of Vitamin K2 in order to get the necessary nutrients needed to support health related issues.

Vegetables High in Vitamin K1

  • Kale
  • Dandelion Greens
  • Collard Greens
  • Spinach
  • Brussel Sprouts
  • Broccoli

Herbs High in Vitamin K1

  • Basil
  • Sage
  • Thyme/li>
herbs high in vitamin k1
Studies show high doses of Vitamin K2, MK-7 may address the following health issues:

  • Cardiovascular Health*
  • Brain Function*
  • Osteoporosis*
  • Arterial Calcification*
This is where the Vitamin K2 comes into place and more specifically Vitamin K2, MK-7, which is the optimum quality K2. Vitamin K2, the menaquinones is divided into short-chain menaquinones (MK-4) and long-chain menaquinones (MK-7, MK-8 and MK-9). Vitamin K2 is originally sourced from bacteria and is shown to be most effective with tissue that occurs outside of the liver such as bone, cartilage and vasculature. Vitamin K2 and Vitamin K1 are very different and cannot be obtained from the same foods. Whereas an individual can get Vitamin K1 from leafy green vegetables and herbs, Vitamin K2 is derived in its most potent form from fermented soybeans.

Although the structure of K vitamins is very similar in the sense that they share a quinone ring, they differ in the menaquinone chain, which signifies the specific tissues. So, MK-4 has four isoprene units that are attached to the quinone ring whereas MK-7 has seven isoprene units that are attached to the quinone ring. Even though it is a matter of a few isoprene units that separate these two forms of Vitamin K2, it is important to know that MK-4 and MK-7 function very differently within the body.

optimum-k2-diagram
Similar to Vitamin K1, Vitamin MK-4 has been shown beneficial in the blood coagulation process. Small traces of Vitamin K2 MK-4 are found in both meat and eggs. Vitamin K2 MK-4 (synthetic) differs from MK-7 (natural) in that it has a minimal half-life of merely an hour or so compared with MK-7, which stays in the body longer (few days), which increases its likelihood of consistent blood level maintenance.

The MK-7 form of Vitamin K2 is derived from the extract of fermented soybeans. Although many people in Japan consume fermented soybeans, the slimy and smelly taste and texture of them often make it too harsh and unpleasant to consume which is why getting the adequate amount of MK-7 is much easier and convenient as a dietary supplement. However, when considering a Vitamin K2, MK-7 supplement, it is important to make sure the MK-7 is derived from fermented soybeans in a Non-GMO form.

Vitamin K Deficiency

Vitamin K deficiency has been associated with the long-term use of antibiotics and anticoagulant drugs such as warfarin as well as decrease in green vegetable consumption. One of the biggest factors associated with anticoagulant drug use is arterial calcification, which in turn has been linked to several other health-related issues such as high blood pressure and thickening of ventricular walls.

Vitamin K deficiency has been more prevalent today than ever before since the Western diet is heavily lacking sufficient amounts of leafy green vegetables, which offer a significant source of Vitamin K1, a vital part of the blood coagulation process. What was once a staple food loaded with necessary nutrients has now become an after thought as more and more foods turn to packaged and processed to fit the fast paced lifestyles of people today. Since fewer greens are being consumed, health issues related to Vitamin K deficiency are on the rise such as cardiovascular disease, reduction of bone mineral density and decline in active osteocalcin, which increases the likelihood of fragile bones and fractures.

Vitamin K Side Effects and Interactions

In healthy individuals, research has not reported any side effects, adverse reactions or known toxicity as a result of large doses of Vitamin K2. However, individuals on anticoagulants such as warfarin should consult their healthcare professional before adding a Vitamin K2 supplement to their daily regimen.

References:

  1. Beulens JW, Bots ML, Atsma F, et al. High dietary menaquinone intake is associated with reduced coronary calcification. Atherosclerosis. 2009;203:489-493.
  2. Booth SL, Suttie JW. Dietary intake and adequacy of vitamin K. J Nutr. 1998;128(5):785-788.
  3. Geleijnse JM, Vermeer C, Grobbee DE, Schurgers LJ, Knapen MH, van der Meer IM, Hofman A, Witteman JC. Dietary intake of menaquinone is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: the Rotterdam Study. J Nutr. 2004;134(11):3100-5.
  4. Hypotension associated with menaquinone Am J Health Syst Pharm 2012 69: 1307-1309.
  5. Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Sato Y. Effects of vitamin K2 on osteoporosis. Department of Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan. 2004;10(21):2557-76.
  6. Kaneki et al, “Japanese fermented soybean food as the major determinant of the large geographic difference in circulating levels of vitamin K2: possible implications for hip-fracture risk.” Nutrition 2001, 17(4): 315-21.
  7. Knapen MH, Schurgers LJ, Vermeer C. Vitamin K2 supplementation improves hip bone geometry and bone strength indices in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 2007;18(7):963-72. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1915640/
  8. Vitamin K: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2009. www.webmd.com
  9. Zieman SJ, Melenovsky V, Kass DA. Mechanisms, pathophysiology, and therapy of arterial stiffness. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005;25(5):932-43.
*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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Innerzyme Launces Highest Potency Non-GMO Natural Vitamin K2, MK-7, 300 mcg Supplement

Scottsdale, AZ – Innerzyme, a highly reputable and fast growing nutraceutical company specializing in natural digestive and systemic enzyme supplements has launched the highest potency, Non-GMO Vitamin K2, MK-7 supplement on the market which provides 300 mcg in a single vegetarian capsule. Innerzyme utilizes a pure, optimum quality Vitamin K2, MK-7 as menaquinone-7 from Non-GMO fermented soybeans.

The decision to formulate and launch a high potency Vitamin K2, MK-7, 300mcg supplement came after much research into health and dietary habits of Eastern cultures and collaboration with a strategic team of healthcare professionals who focus primarily on preventative care through alternative medicine.

Vitamin K has long been recognized for its role in protein biosynthesis for the blood coagulation process. However, research now indicates that Vitamin K plays a vital part in a variety of complex physiological functions within the body. More specifically, studies show high doses of Vitamin K2, MK-7, the menaquinones, may help promote cardiovascular, bone and soft tissue health.* (1,3)

The K group of vitamins includes Vitamin K1 and Vitamin K2. It is important to know that Vitamin K1 and Vitamin K2 not only come from different sources but also have different functions. Vitamin K1 is readily available in plant-based foods and easy to consume. The best way to get an adequate amount of Vitamin K1 is through your diet. Vitamin K1 offers adequate blood clotting support, however, there are a variety of health related issues that Vitamin K1 does not sufficiently support.* (2) Studies show these growing health issues are better addressed by Vitamin K2 in the natural form of MK-7. Although many people in Eastern cultures consume fermented soybeans, the slimy and smelly taste and texture of them often make it too harsh and unpleasant to consume.

With the growing research on the many health benefits associated with Vitamin K2, MK-7, Innerzyme wanted to offer an easier and more convenient way for people to get an adequate amount of MK-7. This new addition to the Innerzyme line of natural supplements has done just that with an easy to swallow, one a day vegetarian capsule providing 300 mcg of Vitamin K2, MK-7.

Vitamin K2, MK-7 may support:

  • Cardiovascular Health*
  • Bone and Soft Tissue Health*
  • Arterial Calcification*
  • Healthy Brain Function*

In healthy individuals, research has not reported any side effects, adverse reactions or known toxicity as a result of large doses of Vitamin K2. However, individuals on anticoagulants such as warfarin should consult their healthcare professional before adding a Vitamin K2 supplement to their daily regimen.

Innerzyme is dedicated to improving the overall quality of life for people by spreading awareness about the importance of preventative health and living a healthy lifestyle through proper diet, exercise and nutritional supplementation. Innerzyme is committed to providing people with safe, natural and effective products. Innerzyme supplements are manufactured in the USA to the highest standards in a cGMP certified facility.

For more information about Innerzyme Vitamin K2, MK-7:

Website: http://www.optimumvitamink2.com
Phone: (480) 284-8478
Email: info@innerzyme.com

**Warning: If you have a health condition, are pregnant, nursing, lactating, trying to become pregnant or taking any medications (especially anticoagulants such as warfarin), consult your healthcare practitioner before using this product.

*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

References:

  1. Beulens JW, Bots ML, Atsma F, et al. High dietary menaquinone intake is associated with reduced coronary calcification. Atherosclerosis. 2009;203:489-493.
  2. Booth SL, Suttie JW. Dietary intake and adequacy of vitamin K. J Nutr. 1998;128(5):785-788.
  3. Geleijnse JM, Vermeer C, Grobbee DE, Schurgers LJ, Knapen MH, van der Meer IM, Hofman A, Witteman JC. Dietary intake of menaquinone is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: the Rotterdam Study. J Nutr. 2004;134(11):3100-5.
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